The Demonization of Bill Cosby and the Development of Early Christian Mythology

I have been studying pretty intensely the ongoing Demonization of Bill Cosby and I am finding it extremely helpful in imagining Christian origins.

For example there have been two waves of accusations.

The 1998-2006 Wave:
The first wave started in 1998 with a woman falsely claiming to be his daughter. She tried extorting $40 million dollars from him. She was arrested by the FBI and sentenced to 4 years in prison. In 2000, a starlet, having failed an audition with him, went to the police three days later and claimed that Cosby had placed her under his sweatshirt and “started to move it south.” When she pulled her hand away, Cosby said, “fine” and told her to go home. The police looking at the complaint simply dismissed it as no crime or non-consensual act had been committed. They did not bother to inform Cosby. In 2005, another woman, a 31 year old friend that he had known for a year and a half went to the police and claimed that one year before Cosby had given her an herbal drug after she asked for something for her mental stress, and that the pills he gave her immobilized her and she had a “fuzzy” memory of them engaging in mutual masturbation. She slept over and left his house the next morning. She was now unemployed, broke and having mental problems. Cosby called this another attempt to extort money from him. The police investigated for two months and could not find any evidence to support her claims. She started a civil suit against Cosby for $150,000 plus lawyers fees. Cosby was forbidden by the court from talking about the case in public. At this point, a lawyer named Tamara Green, who was facing disbarment from the California Bar for stealing $20,000 from three clients announced that 30 years before, Cosby had done the same thing to her. She immediately went on the Today Show, CBS News, Fox News, and gave interviews to declare that she had also asked him for drugs for the Flu, became immobilized (apparently for and fought him off when he tried to undress and kiss her. After this media blitzkrieg, more women started accusing Bill Cosby. The next accuser was paid $7,500 for her story by the National Enquirer tabloid magazine and when Cosby threatened to sue the magazine, it negotiated an exclusive interview with Cosby in return for not running the story. She later sold her story to another newspaper. The lawyers for the woman who filed the lawsuit were able to find 12 “Jane Does” willing to testify against Cosby about druggings and near sexual assaults that had happened 20, 30 and 40 years before. In late 2006,. The lawsuit was settled out of court and none of the 12 “Jane Does” testified. A couple of the Jane Does went public going on television and being paid for exclusive interviews to tabloid magazines.
Jesus had 12 apostles, the accusers of Bill Cosby had 12 Jane Does. The story died down for eight years. The five women who had accused Cosby were quickly forgotten.

2014 Wave:

Then in November, 2014 a black comedian (the Judas in our mythology) did a comedy routine in which he called Bill Cosby “a rapist.” Newspapers and tabloid websites started talking about the comedy routine and reprinting all the charges of the accusers, without noting that no proof of any crime was ever given by any of them. The following week, the Washington Post, known for its meticulous fact-checking, from the book and movie “All the President’s Men,” gave Barbara Bowman, one of the 2006 accusers, a chance to do an editorial, without any fact-checking. In it, she asked rhetorically, “Why did it take so long for people to believe me?” Five women came forth with tales about being drugged and/or sexually assaulted right after this. Then a lawyer announced that Bill Cosby should give $100 million dollars to be shared by all the women he had wronged. In the past two months since then, 30 more women have come out with accusations. None has provided the slightest proof, and some have told stories directly contradicted by facts. Some even drastically change their stories from telling to telling.

It is interesting that the Demon Bill Cosby Mythology has been fed by a number of factors – racism, a desire to help raped women, a desire for publicity and most of all the desire for money. All of this has contributed to the media feeding frenzy, where every single day there is a crazy new story or several told. The main stream Mass Media, who generally dismissed the absurd stories of the accusers in 2005, are now treating the new accusers as heroes, weak and long oppressed women who are finally standing up and revealing the truth, and taking their unproven and mostly unprovable near-miracle stories seriously.

It is kind of a weird new religion, where proponents shout “Hallelujah, another accuser testifies to the truth of the Demon Cosby.” One can imagine this as an echo of Second century Christians shouting, “Hallelujah” another sinner testifies to the truth of the God Jesus.

I suspect the Early Christian mythology developed in more and more fanatical waves very similar way to the Demon Cosby Myth.

However, one thing to note is that we now have the ability to create instantaneous myths involving real living people. In the First Century communications technology was much more primitive and myths of fictional characters could have spread just as easily. In other words, now, due to technology we cannot historicize fictional characters, although we certainly can mythologize historical characters. I think in ancient times fictional characters could be historicized. All or most ancient mythology testifies to this.

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The Demonization of Bill Cosby: The Terrible, Terrible lies of the Sad, Sad Cosby Accusers: Part 1 – Kristina Ruehli

This is a preliminary article. I will be adding footnotes and expanding it in a few days when I have more time.

The lies of the Cosby Accusers are terrible in two senses, first the damage it is doing for race relations in the United States. Dr. Cosby has been a great leader for over 50 years in bringing people of all races together through laughter. That Legacy is being destroyed, as Felicia Rashad suggested[i] “‘This is about the obliteration of a legacy’ Second is fact that these women are terrible liars, in the sense of not being good at lying. They constantly change their stories and contradict themselves, often saying too much about the drugging and/or sexual assault, but not enough about other aspects of the incident/s. This raises suspicions and their attempts to explain away the serious problems are often ad-hock and don’t really answer the objections.

The accusers are also sad in two ways. First their personal situations are sad, many are or were in desperate situations, often mentally disturbed, broke, and unemployed. Some are doing it for publicity to try to regain lost fame. Some are simply racists. Some are women who have been abused by men in a sexist society all their lives and are getting some kind of revenge. Some have mixtures of these motives and perhaps others. They represent the sadness and loneliness of aging in a society that generally glorifies and misleads the young and ignores the old. One hears the sadness of their lives in their stories. Besides being people in sad life stories, they are people who have chosen to put themselves in a terrible situation where they must try to get people to believe stories about the Demon Cosby, stories they have invented. The liar must always be on his guard, always ready to invent new stories to cover the falsehoods in the old ones. The liar is never secure or at ease.

This series will examine many of the accusers. The first one chosen is Kristina Ruehli. She is not the first accuser, but she does bring the oldest allegation, claiming to have been the earliest victim of Bill Cosby in 1965. She first told her story in 2005, being one of the 12 “Jane Does” in the Constand lawsuit. However she never testified in court as the case was settled out of court. She did not reveal her name or tell her story to the public until November, 2014. She is unique in that she actually identifies the date of her attack, December 12, 1965. This makes her quite different from Tamara Green who has identified her attack as happening in 1975, or the early 1970’s, or when she was “19 years old,” which would have been 1968.

Kristina Ruehli 2005 Jane Doe and 2014 Accuser

Kristina Ruehli 2005 Jane Doe and 2014 Accuser

She is also unique in having quickly discredited herself by giving two seriously different accounts In her first magazine and television interviews

In an interview in Philadelphia Magazine on November 21, 2014[ii], Kristina Ruehli, says that she was all alone at Bill Cosby’s house where he attempted to assault her. The very next day, she gave an interview in New Hampshire on NH1 television[iii] in which she said that there was another woman in the house, an actress that she came with and she believed that Bill Cosby had raped this other woman before her. Cosby wasn’t interested in raping her, because he had already raped this other woman that night. She was not going to reveal the name of the actress because she has not come forward.

Perhaps, the amazing thing is that Ms. Ruehl in 50 years apparently never thought to ask this woman if Bill Cosby had done anything to her and even now has never asked her if he did anything to her, although she could collaborate her story instantly.

If I was a reporter interviewing Ms. Ruehli,  I would ask her this:  if you were not alone at the house as you claim in the NI1 interview, why did you tell the Philadelphia magazine that you were alone? How can anyone believe you after you say in one interview that you were alone and the very next day claim you were not alone?

Also, Ms. Ruehli says that she took 2 bourbon and sevens from Mr. Cosby in an 8 ounce glass, but she insists that this could not have made her pass out. She contends that she must have been drugged.

Ms. Ruehl claims that she was a Barbara Eden lookalike. Barbara Eden was 5’4″ and weighed 120 lbs. 1965. Apparently Ms. Ruehl does not know that 2 bourbon and sevens with 3 ounces of 90 proof bourbon, given to a 120 lb. woman, is the equivalent of about five drinks. This would have made her legally intoxicated with a blood alcohol level of .28, which actually would put her in an alcoholic stupor. This causes “General inertia; approaching loss of motor function, markedly decreased response to stimuli,marked muscular incoordination; inability to stand or walk, vomiting; incontinence, Impaired consciousness; sleep or stupor.” Ms. Ruehl, a non-drinker, admits that she willingly took enough alcohol to pass out, but insists, that she’s Irish and attended college keggers, so the drinks could not have had that effect on her.

It is also amazing that after 50 years Ms. Ruehli can remember the size of the glass that she drank out of down to the ounce. She says that she never told anybody until 2005. That is 40 years without communicating the story to anybody and yet she can be sure of the size of the drink, at least so sure as to be willing to testify against him in a civil suit.

Ms. Ruehli can remember the size of the drink, but she claims that she can’t remember the location of the house. She says it was Belmont, Bel Air or some place starting with a “B”.

Ms. Ruehl, in the New Hampshire interview, also accidentally gives the probable reason she made up her drug and sexual assault accusation. She was watching Chris Hayes and he said that it was “white women” who were making the accusations. She decided right there and then to come forward. In other words, Ms. Ruehl was incensed that a black man was believed instead of white women. This is the reason she came forward in 2014, but it also explains perhaps, why she became a Jane Doe in 2005. For her accusing a black man of rape was just her duty defending white women.

This is an article in progress and more will be added this week as I get a chance. To be continued…

[i] http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/gossip/phylicia-rashad-defends-tv-husband-bill-cosby-article-1.2068673

[ii] http://www.phillymag.com/news/2014/11/21/kristina-ruehli-says-bill-cosby-drugged-tried-sexually-assault-1965/

[iii] http://www.nh1.com/videos/nh-s-kristina-ruehli-accuses-bill-cosby-of-1965-sexual-assault/

How Bill Cosby’s First Drug Accuser Used a Tabloid Smear to Silence Bill Cosby

Bill Cosby

This is in response to the 11/21/2014 article in the Daily Beast: How Bill Cosby Allegedly Silenced His Accusers Through A Tabloid Smear Campaign by Marlow Stem.

The article fails to make clear the sequence of events. Beth Ferrier contacted the National Enquirer after reading about the police investigating the complaint by Andrea Constand. Constand told the Philadelphia Police that a year earlier, in response to her request for herbal medicine to relieve her stress, Bill Cosby gave her a drug that caused her to lose consciousness and engaged in sex with her. She woke up with her clothes disheveled.

After reading about the police investigation, Ferrier contacted the National Enquirer and said that after a consensual affair, she also believed that Bill Cosby gave her drugs (in her coffee) and she was also knocked out and awoke with her clothes disheveled. The National Enquirer gave her $7,500 for her story. While it is true that she passed a lie detector test, the National Enquirer has a crew of special people who give these lie detector tests and almost always finds the person truthful. They have given these same lie detector tests to numerous people who claimed UFO abduction and they passed.

The police charges were then dismissed against Cosby. Incidentally the fact that Bruce Castor, the Philadelphia district attorrney who investigated the case, thought that Cosby did something “inappropriate” does not mean that he thought that he drugged and engaged in sex with Ms. Constand. Naturally when a 30 year old beautiful single woman sleeps alone over the house of a 65 year old married man, one thinks that something “inappropriate happened.” At the time he dismissed the case he said that he felt that both Constand and Cosby were being less than truthful. Cosby said that he had given her benadryl, an over the counter medication, and she had slept over. He denied the sexual allegation.

With the police investigation over, and Cosby found innocent, the allegation by Beth Ferrier looked ridiculous on the surface. First it was a 20 year old allegation that she had told nobody about and only remembered it after reading about the police investigation of Cosby in the National Enquirer, which everybody knows pays sources for gossip and outrageous stories. Secondly, Ferrier’s story made no logical sense. He had already had consensual sex with her. According to her, he had stopped the relationship. Why drug her to have sex with her when she was willing to have sex with him? Cosby could not have known how crazy her story was. The National Enquirer almost certainly offered the deal to Cosby: give them an exclusive story about the Constand police investigation case, and they would not run the second allegation story. Since Cosby had felt that the newspaper had played a positive role in the the investigation of his son’s murder, it made perfect sense for Cosby to agree to the interview. Constand’s lawyers, I believe at this point had either filed their civil suit against Cosby or had announced they were going to file one. Knowing about a second woman who claimed the same thing as Constand would certainly help Cosby’s defense team to fight the lawsuit.

The law suit that Constand filed in 2006 regarding the story being squashed was against the National Enquirer and Cosby’s lawyer. It was not against Cosby.

This article makes it seem that Cosby was in cahoots with the National Enquirer to suppress stories of him drugging women. One could just as well, and perhaps see it more accurately, as the National Enquirer pressuring and tricking Cosby into giving an exclusive interview about the recent police case rather than running a copycat article about a 20 year old unsubstantiated incident by a woman they had paid $7,500.

Beth Ferrier later became Jane Doe #5 in Constand’s civil suit against Cosby.

Beth Ferrier’s allegation that after discontinuing their relationship, Cosby invited her to his dressing room, gave her cappuccino, and may have had sex with her still makes no sense. It makes far more sense believing that Ferrier still had unresolved issues with Cosby for breaking off the relationship and wanted the money from the National Enquirer. Simply saying she had a brief consensual love affair with Cosby twenty years before would not have gotten her any money from the sensationalist National Enquirer.

It also seems far more probable that the National Enquirer outfoxed Cosby into granting an exclusive interview in return for not running a highly improbable and impossible to verify story. He could hardly have sort to squash a story that he knew nothing about until the National Enquirer told him about it.

This February 1, 2006 lawsuit by Constand’s lawyers was aimed at silencing Bill Cosby. On April 20, 2005, Constand’s lawyers had filed papers claiming that there were ten “Jane Doe” witnesses who had also been assaulted by Cosby. Cosby did not know the names of any of these ten Jane Does. Constand’s lawyers kept them from Cosby’s lawyers. Despite filings in the case to gain that information, Cosby’s lawyers still did not know the names of the ten “Jane Does” at this point. This additional lawsuit was to let Cosby know that even after the names of the Jane Does were released, he still would not be able to defend himself in the media against their charges. All the public knew was that the accuser’s lawyers had ten women willing to testify against Cosby. Thus nobody could be sure if Cosby was guilty or not. This brought intense pressure on Cosby to settle the Constand lawsuit. His lawyers could not be sure if any of the Jane Does (whose number grew to 12) had a credible case or not.

This article, like all mainstream articles gets things upside down. Bill Cosby was the one being silenced in this case, the accusers were the only ones allowed to speak against him in the media and to put pressure on him to settle the case before he could be tried and found innocent.

Latest Accuser: Bill Cosby Forced Me to Laugh Against My Will

MORE ACCUSERS
Today's New Cosby Accusers

I want to thank these brave women for coming out. They have given me the courage to do what I must do.

After reading that Cosby’s first accuser in 2005, Andrea Constand, sued Bill Cosby for $150 million dollars and got some kind of out-of-court settlement, I suddenly remembered that I too was raped by Bill Cosby. It was January 18, 1961 and I went to see Bill Cosby at the Bottom Line in Greenwich Village. There were about 157 people there. I was surprised when Cosby appeared on-stage in only his bathrobe. He had a wild look in his eyes. This was not the Bill Cosby I knew or expected. This was a different Bill Cosby than I had ever known, completely different from the Bill Cosby who had been mentoring me in comedy acting in his home for several years. He promised to put me in all seven of the network television shows he was planning to star in.

He said that he was going to try something a little different tonight. He bought everybody in the room cups of cappuccino. When I said I didn’t want to drink it because cappuccino had the effects of Spanish Fly on me, he just scowled, “Don’t be a baby.”  I instantly knew after the first sip that I had been drugged. I woke up four hours later in the parking lot. My clothes were disheveled and my underwear was pulled up and I was wearing a Bruce Springsteen tee-shirt. I did not even own a Bruce Springsteen tee-shirt! Because of all the accusers that have come before me, I am now sure that he raped all 157 people at that performance.

I do not want anything from Bill Cosby, but I do want people to believe me. I would also like to hear from a lawyer who is willing to start a $150 million dollar lawsuit on behalf of myself and the 156 who were there. I am willing to settle for only $50 million dollars. The lawyer would get $10 million to be split between myself and the other victims. However since I am the first to come forward, I think that my share should be at least $20 million. I was going to be a comedian, but this performance ruined my life. I saw nothing funny about comedy after this tragic episode.

I was too ashamed to tell anybody about this. I did write it in my diary, but that was lost in the New Orleans Hurricane in 2006 and I am sure nobody will ever find it. I did tell my cat and more than ten cats that I have had since that time.

I am not sure if the incident actually happened on January 18, 1961. You cannot expect someone to remember these details after such a traumatic experience. It may have been February 18th, or it may have been in 1960, or 1962. If Cosby was not playing at the Bottom Line in those years, it might have been in the 1970’s or 1980’s. It may not have been at the Bottom Line, but some other club, maybe not New York, but in Denver or L.A. or Las Vegas. I remember that exactly.

Please don’t think I am making this up for the money, I don’t care about the money. The $20 million dollars will never make up for what that man did to me. I am proud to become the 648th accuser of Bill Cosby. I urge all of you who were in the audience that night to come forward and speak out and join my lawsuit. Again, I have no reason for saying this, except that it is the truth.

I posted this three days ago and today I got my first phone call from a lawyer offering to represent me. Why did it take so long for people to believe me?

New Anti-rape Laws and Guidelines are Really Christian Anti-Sex Laws

Regarding the article “Accusers and the Accused, Crossing Paths at Columbia University”.
 Paul Nungesser, who was accused of rape, says Columbia University is letting mob justice overrule its official procedures. Credit Damon Winter/The New York Times

This article, the Virginia University Rolling Stone article, and the Bill Cosby travesty has made me aware that new laws and institutional guidelines designed to protect rape victims are acting as anti-sex laws victimizing hundreds of thousands of men and women who engaged in consensual and loving sexual activities.

We should remember that the Feminist movement started by Simone de Beauvoir was started as an existentialist movement as a way to stop women from thinking of themselves as victims to men and actually being weak victims and inferior to men. Now we have laws and guidelines that demand that women announce themselves publicly as victims and institutionalizes inequality in treatment before the law. In this case the accused could not introduce the behavior of the alleged victim after the incident, while she could introduce evidence of his treatment of other women.

Since the beginning of known history, men and women have taken alcohol and drugs before engaging in sex. Now, laws criminalize this behavior. These are laws appropriate for Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia, not the United States, where tens of millions of people habitually consume alcohol and drugs and engage in sex every weekend.

I include among these laws, the absurd 18 year old age of consent laws, higher than any country in Europe and equal to Saudi Arabia’s age of consent. Thousands of women teachers are in jail because of having consensual relationships with their 16 and 17 year old students. While firing these women may be appropriate, sending them to jail and destroying their lives is insane.

Unfortunately in many cases hard right-wing christian anti-sex conservatives in state legislatures have passed these laws, under the guise of protecting women and children. Unless Republicans are voted out of office, these laws will not be changed and tens of thousands of innocent men and women will continue to be victimized with being labelled sexual predators, thrown out of school, losing jobs, and going to jail.

This is being done in the name of stopping rape, but it is really anti-sex, anti-feminist and anti-humanist witch-hunting designed to stamp out original sin.

The Death Olympics

The Olympics today are not the modern Olympics that started again in 1896. They are the opposite of those Olympics.
The Olympics of 1896 promoted internationalism, humanism and amateur sports. Today, the Olympics promote nationalism, corporatism and professional sports.
Rich countries spend billions of dollars to win medals. They use their victories to promote nationalist and even war agendas. Instead of amateur athletes, we have professional atheletes who are paid millions of dollars to train 365 days a year with coaches and scientists paid millions of dollars to make sure they win at billion dollar facilities. The men and women produced are much more cyborgs than persons. Publicity agents and hired journalists are paid millions to create “compelling stories” around them. The “joy of sports” has been replaced with the “pain of sports.”
The Olympics no longer have ideals, it is just another capitalist money-making spectacle. 

Aquila and Priscilla: Two Male Apostles in a Gay Marriage?

004-paul-corinth

I propose that Aquila and Prisca (AKA Priscilla), the man and wife mentioned in 1 Corinthians, Romans and Acts, were actually a gay married couple. Here is some of the evidence.

1. These are strange names considering that the text calls Aquila a Jew from Pontus. Aquila is Latin for “eagle” and Prisca is feminine for prescus, Latin for “ancient.” A dialect of Greek was spoken in Pontus and the names are meaningless in Greek. They have nothing to do with Judaism. The Eagle was the ensign of the Roman legion. The Eagle was associated with Zeus and Jupiter. Also the Eagle was associated with the apotheosis of the Roman Emperors, the enrollment of a mortal among the gods. “Eagle” and “Ancient” seem to be nicknames. The fact that Priscilla has a feminine nickname does not mean the person was a woman. As the wife of a man in a marriage, he might well be called by a feminine nickname. Remember the Lou Reed song “Walk on the Wild Side”

Holly came from Miami F.L.A.
Hitch-hiked her way across the U.S.A.
Plucked her eyebrows on the way
Shaved her legs and then he was a she

2. Aquila and Prisca, according to Acts and Romans, travel from Pontus to Rome, from Rome to Corinth, from Corinth to Ephesus and from Ephesus back to Rome. It would have been extremely unusual for a man to travel so much with his female wife. Women were supposed to take care of the household. That was their primary responsibility. They normally stayed at home while their husbands traveled. Travel was expensive and dangerous. There were no police forces, so if a woman was kidnapped and abused, the husband could only sue in the law courts to get her back.
Except for exceptional cases, such as Caesar bringing Cleopatra to Rome with him, women did not normally travel long distances with their husbands in the First Century in the Roman Empire.

3. Aquila and Prisca are both described as “Tent-Makers,” in Acts 18:3, “And because he was of the same craft, he stayed with them, and worked: for by their occupation they were tentmakers.”
It would have been extremely unusual for a man and women to have the same job. Most occupations were segregated by sex. Given the rough and heavy materials that tent-makers would have had to work with, it is hard to imagine a woman being allowed to do such a job. If Prisca and Aquila are really two men, this would not be a problem at all.

4. Paul forbids women to even speak in Christian meetings in Corinthians 14.34:

“Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.”

Women are to remain silent. They are not allowed to pray, recite hymns, speak in tongues or make prophesies as the men do in meetings. Paul does not make any exceptions. It is incredible to imagine he would have allowed a woman to be an apostle. If Prisca is not allowed to speak when Christians meet, how can she be an apostle? If Prisca and Aquila were both man, this would not be a problem.

5. Sometimes the name Prisca is used before the name Aquila. It would have been extremely unusual to give the woman’s name before her husband’s name. If these were two men it would not have mattered which name was used first.
Note from Wikipedia article “Priscilla and Aquila” (Retrieved March 10, 2014:

They are mentioned six times in four different books of the New Testament. They are always named as a couple and never individually. Of those six references, Priscilla’s name is mentioned first three times, which is conspicuously unusual for such a male-dominant society.[2][4] Throughout Scripture, the man is usually mentioned first; e.g., Adam and Eve, Ananias and Sapphira, making the three appearances of Priscilla’s name first a notable exception.

6. Passage 18.26-27 reads:

“He began to speak boldly in the synagogue, but when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him home and explained God’s way to him more accurately.
When Apollos wanted to cross over to Achaia, the brothers wrote to the disciples there, urging them to welcome him. On his arrival he greatly helped those who, through God’s grace, had believed.”

The term “Brothers” almost certainly refers to Prisca and Aquila. They are the only people speaking with Apollos in the previous sentence and they have just come from Corinth. There is no reason for the other “brothers” of Ephesus to want him to go there. Thus Priscilla and Aquila are referred to as “Brothers”.

7. In 3.Galatians.27, Paul writes, “28There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.” Thus he abolishes sexual difference between males and females. As there is no longer any difference between male and female, it follows logically that members of the church should marry men just as they marry women.

8. There is a vigorous debate regarding Romans 16:7 and the reference to an Apostle named either Junia (female) or Junias (male). The manuscript evidence is ambiguous. This indicates that early Christians disagreed if apostles could be female. Perhaps some Christians felt that it was better for Paul to be friends with a female than a gay male and changes Priscus to Prisca/Priscilla.

9. The writer says explicitly in 1. Corinthians 7. “It is good for a man not to have sexual relations with women.” Here is a clear statement against heterosexuality. Paul never says that it is good for a man not to have sexual relations with men. If he felt that all sexual relations were bad, why did he not say so? As it is, he condemns only heterosexual relations.

In 1. Corinthians 7, he says, “6Now as a concession, not a command, I say this.a 7I wish that all were as I myself am. But each has his own gift from God, one of one kind and one of another.” By “as myself am” The writer either means that he is homosexual or he abstains from sex. The text does not tell us which.

For all these reasons, one may suggest that both Aquila and Prisca are Early Church male Apostles in a gay marriage.